They could not be prevented from putting their own price on their grants … that they should be allowed to interfere with every one of the king's prerogatives, to wring from him his consent to laws which he disliked, to break up cabinets, to dictate the course of foreign policy and even to direct the administration of war’. Finch, II, 97Google Scholar; Exact Collection, p. 202. [12][d], Under the Instrument of Government passed by Parliament, Cromwell was appointed Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland in 1653, effectively placing the British Isles under military rule. Copyright © Royal Historical Society 1982, Hostname: page-component-77fc7d77f9-fgqm6 Charles's eldest son, the Duke of Monmouth, led a rebellion against James II, but was defeated at the Battle of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685, captured and executed. Academic historians have concentrated mainly on his activities as a statesman and emphasised his duplicity, self-indulgence, poor judgement and lack of an aptitude for business or for stable and trustworthy government. Charles lived a life of leisure at Saint-Germain-en-Laye near Paris,[14] living on a grant from Louis XIV of 600 livres a month. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, "England was overjoyed at having a monarch again." The death toll reached a peak of 7,000 per week in the week of 17 September. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, and Charles was invited to return to Britain. 125–6Google Scholar. The bodies of Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton and John Bradshaw were subjected to the indignity of posthumous decapitations. An English Parliament that lasted from 1640 until 1660. [11] Nevertheless, the Scots remained Charles's best hope of restoration, and he was crowned King of Scotland at Scone Abbey on 1 January 1651. 608–10). "crossMark": true, 12 February 2009. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim. "languageSwitch": true, Her close reading of the Kings’ speeches in chapter three however is a very valuable exercise. 137 Ibid., pp. Long Parliament. 123 C.J., IX, 702–3; Grey, , Debates, VIII, 262, 322Google Scholar. 70 Ibid., II, 315; III, 24, 28–9, 107–8; V, 363–6. When the House of Lords attempted to impose the punishment of exile—which the Commons thought too mild—the impeachment became stalled between the two Houses. However, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic led by Oliver Cromwell. Non-academic authors have concentrated mainly on his social and cultural world, emphasising his charm, affability, worldliness, tolerance, turning him into one of the most popular of all English monarchs in novels, plays and films.[87]. See also, Memoirs of Sir John Reresby, ed. Charles was baptised in the Chapel Royal, on 27 June, by the Anglican Bishop of London, William Laud. 28 Grey, , Debates, VI, 278–9Google Scholar. Finch, II, 52Google Scholar; Exact Collection, pp. But some things had changed. 1687 92 Ibid., II, 200–1, 204, 209–11; III, 343. 24, 1679), the first English Parliament after the Restoration of Charles II to the throne. 71, 191, 239–40, 255, 299; Grey, , Debates, I, 176–7, 186–8Google Scholar; Bodleian Library, Carte MS 36, fos. Theatres reopened after having been closed during the protectorship of Oliver Cromwell, and bawdy "Restoration comedy" became a recognisable genre. 4 Elton, G. R., ‘Parliament in the Sixteenth Century: Functions and Fortunes’, Hist. [25], In the latter half of 1660, Charles's joy at the Restoration was tempered by the deaths of his youngest brother, Henry, and sister, Mary, of smallpox. 32 H.M.C., Healhcote, p. 84Google Scholar; Bodleian Library, Carte MS 47, fos. 16, 21, 25, etc. 145 While there was much talk of the need for frequent parliaments, no bill was brought in to curtail the kings power to summon and dismiss them at will (see C.J., IX, 682). "lang": "en" The House had resolved that a committee of the whole should consider how the militia could be improved, but it never did so (ibid, pp. In the same year, he openly supported Catholic France and started the Third Anglo-Dutch War. 138 Exact Collection, p. 47; see also C.J., IX, 685; Grey, , Debates, VIII, 163, 166–7Google Scholar. [2] England, Scotland, and Ireland were respectively predominantly Anglican, Presbyterian, and Catholic. Though not averse to his escape being ascribed to divine providence, Charles himself seems to have delighted most in his ability to sustain his disguise as a man of ordinary origins, and to move unrecognised through his realm. While Danby seems to have been rightly sceptical about Oates's claims, the Cavalier Parliament took them seriously. Beaufort, p. 111Google Scholar; Exact Collection, pp. In exchange, Charles agreed to supply Louis with troops and to announce his conversion to Catholicism "as soon as the welfare of his kingdom will permit". 46 Grey, , Debates, I, 273, 315, 394Google Scholar; IV, 227. Charles did not believe the allegations, but ordered his chief minister Lord Danby to investigate. It sought to discourage non-conformity to the Church of England and passed several acts to secure Anglican dominance. [76] He told his courtiers, "I am sorry, gentlemen, for being such a time a-dying",[77] and expressed regret at his treatment of his wife. This gathered Spanish support for a restoration in return for Charles's contribution to the war against France. 120 Grey, , Debates, VIII, 168–71Google Scholar. 56 S.R, V, 621, 635; Diary of John Milward, p. 210; C.J., IX, 73. 88 See Chandaman, C. D., The English Public Revenue, 1660–88 (Oxford, 1975)Google Scholar, the standard work on the subject. 17 Grey, , Debates, III, 127Google Scholar; Dering, , Diaries and Papers, p. 175Google Scholar. Others who changed their tune on receiving office were Danby and Sir Robert Howard. A great fire, however, destroyed Charles's lodgings at Newmarket, which forced him to leave the races early, thus inadvertently avoiding the planned attack. In 1672, Charles issued the Royal Declaration of Indulgence, in which he purported to suspend all penal laws against Catholics and other religious dissenters. [26] In the end nine of the regicides were executed:[27] they were hanged, drawn and quartered; others were given life imprisonment or simply excluded from office for life. } 98– 115Google Scholar and H.M.C., Portland, VIII, 15– 19Google Scholar tally closely with Grey. Blencowe, R. (2 vols., London, 1843), I, 253Google Scholar; Luttrell, N., Brief Historical Relation of State Affairs (6 vols., Oxford, 1857), I, 37Google Scholar; Cal. Whose word no man relies on, [53] The Portuguese territories that Catherine brought with her as a dowry proved too expensive to maintain; Tangier was abandoned in 1684. Charles II succumbed to a stroke, February 6, 1685, aged 54. View all Google Scholar citations [91] His arms as monarch were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland). Having lost the support of Parliament, Danby resigned his post of Lord High Treasurer, but received a pardon from the king. 45 Grey, , Debates, II, 201Google Scholar; V, 23; C.J., IX, 159–60, 167, 382–3; Marvell, , Poems and Letters, II, 111Google Scholar. By the end of the battle Charles's force was about 1,000 and with Dunkirk given to the English the prospect of a Royalist expedition to England was dashed. [58] Clifford, who had converted to Catholicism, resigned rather than take the oath, and died shortly after, possibly from suicide. By Elizabeth Killigrew (1622–1680), daughter of Sir Robert Killigrew, married Francis Boyle, 1st Viscount Shannon, in 1660: By Barbara Villiers (1641–1709), wife of Roger Palmer, 1st Earl of Castlemaine and created Duchess of Cleveland in her own right: By Louise Renée de Penancoet de Kérouaille (1649–1734), created Duchess of Portsmouth in her own right (1673): By Mary 'Moll' Davis, courtesan and actress of repute:[96], Letters claiming that Marguerite or Margaret de Carteret bore Charles a son named James de la Cloche in 1646 are dismissed by historians as forgeries. The Cavalier Parliament carried on the work done by the Convention Parliament – the first of Charles II’s parliaments. In 1672, Charles issued the Royal Declaration of Indulgence, in which he purported to suspend all penal laws against Catholics and other religious dissenters. 175, 182, etc. 587, 595, 598). Mercuric poisoning can produce irreversible kidney damage; however, the case for this being a cause of his death is unproven. [25], He set out for England from Scheveningen, arrived in Dover on 25 May 1660 and reached London on 29 May, his 30th birthday. Cromwell dies. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. Samuel Pepys was an administrator of the Navy of England and a Member of Parliament who served under both King Charles II and his brother King James II. Theatre licences granted by Charles required that female parts be played by "their natural performers", rather than by boys as was often the practice before;[34] and Restoration literature celebrated or reacted to the restored court, which included libertines such as John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester. Firth, C. H. (6 vols., London, 1913), I, 174–5Google Scholar. In 1642, when he was twelve years old, the three kingdoms of his father Charles I, England, Scotland, and Ireland, dissolved into civil war. The Commons alone could legally grant him money. Essex slit his own throat while imprisoned in the Tower of London; Sydney and Russell were executed for high treason on very flimsy evidence; and the Duke of Monmouth went into exile at the court of William of Orange. Charles I James II Conflicts with Parliament. 107 Sidney, H., Diary of the Times of Charles II, ed. V, 67, 69 71, 73–5, 82–5, 207 8, 302. During the 1640s, when Charles was still young, his father fought Parliamentary and Puritan forces in the English Civil War. 97 Grey, , Debates, III, 347Google Scholar. 49 Grey, , Debates, III, 307Google Scholar. 108 C.J., IX, 617–18. Negotiations with Portugal for Charles's marriage to Catherine of Braganza began during his father's reign and upon the restoration, Queen Luísa of Portugal, acting as regent, reopened negotiations with England that resulted in an alliance. 54–6Google Scholar. [78] He was buried in Westminster Abbey "without any manner of pomp"[77] on 14 February.[79]. [73] Charles had a laboratory among his many interests, where prior to his illness he had been experimenting with mercury. Ironic and cynical, Charles took pleasure in retailing stories which demonstrated the undetectable nature of any inherent majesty he possessed. He delighted and bored listeners with tales of his escape for many years. Both parliaments were instrumental in creating what became the Restoration Settlement – the Convention Parliament started the process up to December 1660 when it was dissolved while the Cavalier Parliament carried on with its work. Through six weeks of narrow escapes Charles managed to flee England in disguise, landing in Normandy on 16 October, despite a reward of £1,000 on his head, risk of death for anyone caught helping him and the difficulty in disguising Charles, who, at over 6 ft (1.8 m), was unusually tall. Although Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses, he left no legitimate children and was succeeded by his Catholic brother James. ; Glassey, L. K. J., Politics and the Appointment of Justices of the Peace, 1675–1720 (Oxford, 1979), pp. The much fuller An exact Collection of the Debates of the House of Commons held at Westminster, October 21 1680 (London, for Baldwin, R., 1689)Google Scholar differs considerably from Grey, but there are many similarities and internal evidence would suggest that it is substantially accurate. 73 Hyde, E., Earl, of Clarendon, Life (3 vols., Oxford, 1827), III, 283–7Google Scholar; Bodleian Library, Carte MS 47, fos. The The prospect of a Catholic monarch was vehemently opposed by Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (previously Baron Ashley and a member of the Cabal, which had fallen apart in 1673). However, with insufficient funds voted by Parliament, Charles was forced to gradually disband his troops. An Act for the more effectuall preserving the Kings Person and Government by disableing Papists from sitting in either House of Parlyament", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charles_II_of_England&oldid=1001123424, British expatriates in the Dutch Republic, Converts to Roman Catholicism from Anglicanism, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Jane Roberts – the daughter of a clergyman, This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 10:05. Marshall J. 38 B.L., Egerton MS 2539, fo. caught between support for his brother and a hysterical reaction to ‘Popish’ plotting Oliver Cromwell defeats Charles II at the battle of Worcester. No need to register, buy now! Total loading time: 0.651 He wanted both his kingdoms to follow one religion. Charles, kept poor by his follies and vices, wanted money. Before Charles's restoration, the Navigation Acts of 1650 had hurt Dutch trade by giving English vessels a monopoly, and had started the First Dutch War (1652–1654). Dubbed the Cavalier Parliament, it was overwhelmingly Royalist and Anglican. The commission was specifically ordered to investigate Carteret (C.J., IX, 87). 141; Marvell, , Poems and Letters. Charles II was the king of England and Ireland but all these countries now had their own Parliament again. 5 Grey, A., Debates in the House of Commons, 1667–94 (10 vols., London, 1769)Google Scholar; The Diary of John Milward 1666–8, ed. 191 2; Grey, , Debates, I, 85Google Scholar. [67], Charles's opposition to the Exclusion Bill angered some Protestants. 85 When Sir William Coventry advanced a reasoned argument about the war, Secretary Williamson seized on it with relief: here at last was someone with whom one could argue rationally (Ibid., V, 297 301). [5] Charles I surrendered into captivity in May 1646. By 1674 England had gained nothing from the Anglo-Dutch War, and the Cavalier Parliament refused to provide further funds, forcing Charles to make peace. Father fought Parliamentary and Puritan forces in the same year, he was proclaimed king in 1649 a of. The 1640s, when Charles was forced to gradually disband his troops XIV replied he... The fire-fighting effort vices, wanted money 658–62 ; Grey,, Debates, V 67! Of 1688-9 Parliament assembled at Oxford in March 1681, and England became a recognisable genre Revenue,.... Non-Conformity to the full version of the Covenanters better experience on our websites disputes that to. 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