An early capital of the Chola empire from the 9th to the 11th century, it was important during the Vijayanagar, Maratha, and British periods. The temple is considered to be one of the best specimens of Tamil architecture.[10][11][12][13]. Thanjavur is known as the "Rice bowl of Tamil Nadu". [citation needed], The Cholas came to prominence once more through the rise of the Medieval Chola monarch Vijayalaya (841–878) in about 850. [31] The rainfall during the South-West monsoon period is much lower than that of the North-East monsoon. [20], Thanjavur was successfully conquered in 1674 by Ekoji I (1675–84), the Maratha feudatory of the sultan of Bijapur and half-brother of Shivaji (1627/30-80) of the Bhonsle dynasty. Thanjavur is the headquarters of the Thanjavur District. Watch how to say and pronounce "thanjavur"! Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 9.22% and .21% of the population respectively. A full-fledged air force station is operational at Thanjavur. Thanjavur is located at 10°48′N 79°09′E / 10.8°N 79.15°E / 10.8; 79.15 The tributaries of river Cauvery, namely, the Grand Anaicut canal (Pudhaaru), Vadavaaru and … The delta is traversed by innumerable channels of the Kaveri, linked by irrigation canals, some of them used for at least 10 centuries. [88][78] M. Karunanidhi, who served as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for a record five terms, was elected from the Thanjavur assembly constituency in the 1962 elections. Thanjavur is situated in the Cauvery delta, at a distance of 314 km (195 mi) south-west of Chennai and 56 km (35 mi) east of Tiruchirappalli. [5] Vijayalaya conquered Thanjavur from the Mutharayar king Elango Mutharayar and built a temple dedicated to Hindu goddess Nisumbhasudani. Brihadeeswarar Temple, one of the temples in Thanjavur, was built in the Chola period. Category : Astrology information, Entertainment, planetary motion The Thanjai Periya Kovil also called the Rajarajeshvaram or Peruvudaiyar Kovil is the temple dedicated to Lord Shiva, in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. [27], The period from November to February in Thanjavur is pleasant, with a climate full of warm days and cool nights. [107] The Thanjavur Medical College was established in 1961 and is one of the oldest medical colleges in Tamil Nadu. It is located 380 kms, from the Capital of Tamil Nadu, Chennai. [6] His son Aditya I (871–901) consolidated the hold over the city. 222 squadron of the IAF's Sukhoi Su-30 MKI fighter aircraft - the first IAF fighter squadron in Tamil Nadu. The city acts as a focal point for food grains transported from the adjoining areas of the Cauvery Delta. Thanjavur is administered by a municipal corporation covering an area of 128.02 km2 (49.43 sq mi) and had a population of 290,720 in 2011. [8] Five years after its annexation, the British replaced Negapatam (modern-day Nagapattinam) with Thanjavur as the seat of the district administration. [70] Thanjavur Air Force Station was to become a major air base by 2012, to handle Fighter, Transport aircraft and also refuelling aircraft. Thanjai is considered to be the granary and 'rice bowl' of Tamil Nadu. [1] [3] It is one of the largest South Indian temples and an exemplary example of a fully realized Dravidian architecture . Roman Catholics in Thanjavur are affiliated to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tanjore and Protestants are affiliated to the Trichy–Tanjore Diocese of the Church of South India. Ekoji founded the Thanjavur Maratha kingdom which ruled Thanjavur till 1855. [42] Over eighty per cent of its manuscripts are in Sanskrit and many of them are on palm leaves. [41], Schwartz Church, a historic monument located in the palace garden, was built in 1779 by Serfoji II as a token of affection for Rev. The facility was expected to start functioning by 2012. Industries include cotton milling, traditional hand-loom weaving, and the manufacture of vinas (south Indian stringed instruments). There is a lot of agricultural related trading that forms the key economic activity in the city. [113], Electricity supply to Thanjavur is regulated and distributed by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB). [21] Modern day Thanjavur railway junction has three rail heads leading to Tiruchirapalli, Kumbakonam and Thiruvarur. The coverage of solid waste management had an efficiency of 100% as of 2001. While the plains immediately adjoining the Cauvery river have been under cultivation from time immemorial, most of Thanjavur city and the surrounding areas lie in the "New Delt… The average literacy of the city was 83.14%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. [55][56] The sarees produced in the villages surrounding Thanjavur are sold in Thanjavur and neighbouring towns. Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore, city, eastern Tamil Nadu state, southeastern India. [61] Thanjavur is the cradle for many of the arts and crafts in South India. All these departments are under the control of a Municipal Commissioner who is the supreme executive head. The city name "Thanjavur" seems to be derived from the name of a Mutharayar king "Thananjay" or "Dhananjaya". Sugarcane and peanuts (groundnuts) are grown in addition to rice; grain processing is a significant industry. The region around present day Thanjavur was conquered by the Mutharayars during the sixth century, who ruled it up to 849. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Brihadishvara Chola temple, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India. [112] Kalyanasundaram Higher Secondary School, established in 1891, is one of the oldest schools in the city. There are three seasons for agriculture in Thanjavur – Kuruvai (June to September), Samba (August to January) and Thaladi (September, October to February, March). Tamil is the widely spoken language, with the standard dialect being Central Tamil dialect. [45] Carnatic music was codified in Thanjavur and the art flourished during the Nayak rule in the 16th century. North-East monsoon begins October and continues till January. [62] The workforce is predominantly involved in service industry involving trade and commerce. [8][9] During the first decade of the eleventh century, the Chola king Raja Raja Chola I (985–1014) constructed the Brihadeeswarar Temple at Thanjavur. The functions of the municipality are devolved into six departments: General, Engineering, Revenue, Public Health, Town planning and the Computer Wing. Out of the below rivers, Kaveri River Palar River, Vaigai River, Noyyal River, Cheyyar River, Moyar River, Bhavani River, Thamirabarani River … Thiruvarur was a part of Thanjavur district till 1991. The Tamil works include treatises on medicine, and commentaries on Sangam literature. Thanjavur Nayak kingdom - The Thanjavur Nayak kingdom or Thanjavur Nayak dynasty were the rulers of Thanjavur principality of Tamil Nadu in the 16th and 17th centuries. It is the district headquarters by the same name. [56] Increasing production costs and competition from large-scale producers have reduced the number of people involved in the production. Thiruvarur is the largest town compare nagapattinam, mayiladuthurai, and mannargudi in delta region. Thanjavur is believed to have been conquered by Kampanna Udayar during his invasion of Srirangam between 1365 and 1371. In modern times, these paintings have become souvenirs of festive occasions in South India, wall decors, and collectors' items for art lovers.[50][51]. C.V. Schwartz of the Danish Mission. Definition of thanjavur in the Definitions.net dictionary. [41] The Rajaraja Chola art gallery is located inside the palace – it has a large collection of stone and bronze images from the ninth to 12th centuries. NH-67: Thanjavur - Needamangalam - Thiruvurur. Composite Thanjavur District with its fertile soil is one of the largest paddy cultivation area not only in Tamilnadu but also in South India. An early capital of the Chola empire from the 9th to the 11th century, it was important during the Vijayanagar, Maratha, and British periods. Summer rains are sparse and the first monsoon, the South-West monsoon, commences in June and continues till September. [120] The corporation operates three markets, namely the Serfoji Market, Amarar Swaminathan Market and Kamaraj Market and another market, the Subramaniya Swami Koil Market, is maintained by the Subramania Swami Temple authority. The kingdom was eventually absorbed into British India in 1855 by the Doctrine of Lapse when Shivaji II (1832–55), the last Thanjavur Maratha ruler, died without a legitimate male heir. [2][3][citation needed], There are no references to Thanjavur in any of the Sangam period (third century BC to fourth century AD) Tamil records, though some scholars believe that the city has existed since that time. Thanjavur (or 'Thanjai' or 'Tanjore') is 342 km from Chennai the capital of the state Tamil Nadu, India. Thanjavur. This grand temple was built under Rajendra Chola I … [71] However, the establishment and activation of air base has been delayed as of March 2013. Its headquarters is Thanjavur. It is replicated in the Gangaikonda Cholesvarar Temple constructed by Raja Raja's son Rajendra Chola I (1012–44). [11] Vijaya Raghunatha Nayak, the son of Chokkanatha, was killed in a battle and Chokkanatha's brother Alagiri Nayak (1673–75) was crowned as the ruler of the empire. [116] The underground drainage system covers 70% of the city and the remaining sewerage system for disposal of sullage is through septic tanks, open drains and public conveniences. Originally established as a college, it was the first school in South India which taught English to the local populace. Thanjavur, which is also called Tanjore, is the one of the most important town of Tamil Nadu, historically speaking. The total percentage of land fit for cultivation is 58%. [60], As of 2008, a total 2,013.34 ha (4,975.1 acres) (55.4%) of the land was used for residential, 11.32 ha (28.0 acres) (3.06%) for commercial, 82.68 ha (204.3 acres) (2.28%) for industrial, 320.2 ha (791 acres) (8.81%) for public & semi public, 108.11 ha (267.1 acres) (2.98%) for educational and 996.85 ha (2,463.3 acres) (27.47%) for agriculture. Enjoy the spa at this 3.5-star Thanjavur hotel. Thanjavur is also home to Tanjore painting, a painting style unique to the region. The Maratha rulers patronized Carnatic music. Serfoji II was restored in 1799 with the assistance of the British, who induced him to relinquish the administration of the kingdom and left him in charge of Thanjavur fort and surrounding areas. It was originally constructed by the rulers of the Thanjavur Nayak kingdom and after their fall, it served as the official residence of the Thanjavur Marathas. [41] "Sangeetha Mahal" has a permanent handicrafts exhibition centre. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In 1787, Amar Singh, the regent of Thanjavur, deposed the minor Raja, his nephew Serfoji II (1787–93) and captured the throne. Government and private buses operate frequently between the two bus termini and other towns and villages like Vallam, Budalur, Mohamed Bunder, Nadukkavery, Pillaiyarpatti, Vallam Pudursethi, Sengipatti, Ammapettai, Mariamman Kovil, Thiruvaiyaru and Kuruvadipatti. The city first rose to prominence during the reign of Cholas when it served as the capital of the empire. You'll find Maratha Palace and Saraswathi Mahal Library within 2 miles (3 km) of this hotel. [123], This article is about the municipal corporation in Tamil Nadu, India. Omissions? Thanjavur is also famous for the 'Thalaiyatti bommai' or 'Dancing dolls' which is a doll made from clay, wood or plastic. [111] St. Peter's Higher Secondary School at Thanjavur was established by Rev. River cauvery is the Main Source for Cultivation in this district, which is known for its heritage in water management. The art is usually a combination of raised and painted surfaces, with the Hindu god Krishna being the most popular image depicted. Thanjavur is located at 10°48′N 79°09′E / 10.8°N 79.15°E The tributaries of river Cauvery, namely, the Grand Anaicut canal (Pudhaaru), Vadavaaru and Vennaaru rivers flow through the city. It is located on the southern bank of the river Kaveri. [122] The Regional Passport office, Trichy, operates a Passport Seva Kendra (PSK) in Thanjavur, which PSK covers the Nagappattinam, Thiruvarur, Thanjavur, Pudukkottai, and Ariyalur revenue districts. [119] There are a total of 9,745 street lamps: 492 sodium lamps, 2,061 mercury vapour lamps, 7,180 tube lights and twelve high mast beam lamps. The district is located in the delta of the Cauvery River and is mostly agrarian. [41], The Saraswathi Mahal Library, established around 1700 and located in the premises of the palace, contains over 30,000 Indian and European manuscripts written on palm leaf and paper. [65], The railway line connecting Tiruchirappalli Junction railway station to Chennai Egmore via Thanjavur, the Main Line is a historical line established by South Indian Railway Company in 1879. (2001) 215,314; (2011) 222,943. Corrections? [36][40], The Thanjavur Maratha palace was the official residence of the Bhonsle family who ruled over the Thanjavur region from 1674 to 1855. [57], According to 2011 census, Thanjavur had a population of 222,943 with a sex-ratio of 1,042 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. Complete details of Population, Religion, Literacy and Sex Ratio in tabular format. NH-83: Nagapattinam - Thiruvurur - Mannargudi - Thanjavur - Thiruchirappalli - Dindigul - Palani - Pollachi - Coimbatore. [48] Thanjavur is the base for the Tyagaraja Aradhana, a Carnatic music festival held annually during January – February at Thiruvaiyaru, located 13 km (8.1 mi) away from the city. To maximise agricultural produce, organic farming is being implemented. Kallanai is also known as the “Grand Anicut”.It is one of the oldest irrigation dams in the world built around 2000 years ago.It is the world ancient first dam which is built In Running water across the Kaveri River in Trichy District in the state of Tamil Nadu in South India.. In the early 1990s, Thanjavur was connected with Chennai via the Vayudoot flight service, which was stopped due to poor patronage. All these banks have their automated teller machines located in various parts of the city. List of all towns and Villages in Thanjavur Taluka of Thanjavur district, Tamil Nadu. [44] It has a collection of plants, animals and birds and serves as a zoo for children within the city. Question 2. Answer: Thanjavur was famous because it was capital of the Cholas dynasty. There are frequent passenger trains from the city to towns like Thiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Karaikal, Tiruchirapalli, Kumbakonam, Mayiladuthurai and Nagore.[67][68][69]. [8][11] The Marathas exercised their sovereignty over Thanjavur throughout the last quarter of the 17th and the whole of the 18th century. Brihadisvara Temple, Gangaikonda Cholapuram. The nearest airport is Tiruchirapalli International Airport, located at a distance of 56 km (35 mi). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. a As of 2008, the municipality covers an area of 36.33 km2 (14.03 sq mi) and has a total of 51 members. Cauvery river flows through Thanjavur. [106] The Tamil University is a state run institute, started during 1981 and obtained its statutory recognition from the University Grants Commission in 1983. Name the river which was flowed near Thanjavur. Thanjavur is an important center of South Indian religion, art, and architecture. [66] The Great South Indian Railway Company (GSIR) operated a broad gauge rail service between Nagapattinam and Tiruchirapalli via Thanjavur between 1861 and 1875. [64] An integrated bus terminus, called New Bus stand was constructed in 1997 near Raja Serfoji College to handle the passenger traffic. Composite Thanjavur District with its fertile soil is one of the largest paddy cultivation area not only in Tamilnadu but also in South India Thanjavur District is in … Question 3. Who built Raj arajeshvara temple? Thanjavur is located on the "main line" of the railway system in the Coromandel coast connecting Chennai with Tiruchirappalli via Villupuram, Cuddalore, Mayiladuthurai (Mayavaram) and Thanjavur junctions. [36] The walls of the sanctum are covered with wall paintings from the Chola and Nayak periods. [80] The legislative powers are vested in a body of 62 members, one each from the 62 wards. The Brihadeeswarar Temple was completed in around 1010 in the southeastern part of the new capital Thanjavur constructed in the basin of the Kaveri (Cauvery) River by the king of the Chola Dynasty, Rajaraja I (r. 985-1014).It has also been called Rajarajesvara Temple after the king’s name. River cauvery is the Main Source for Cultivation in this district, which is known for its heritage in water management. The city is an important agricultural centre located in the Cauvery Delta and is known as the Rice bowl of Tamil Nadu. [14] Thanjavur was eventually annexed along with the rest of the Chola kingdom by the Pandya king Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I (1268–1308) in 1279 and the Chola kings were forced to accept the suzerainty of the Pandyas. Thanjavur District is in … [52][53] Paddy (unmilled rice) is the crop and the other crops grown are blackgram, banana, coconut, gingelly, ragi, red gram, green gram, sugarcane and maize. For other uses, see, View of the Brihadeeswarar Temple, Maratha palace, paddy field, Rajarajan Manimandapam (Bell Tower) and Tamil University, Sivangangai Park. This page lists the main rivers of Tamil Nadu. The river Arasalar (Tamil: அரசலாறு) is a river that flows through Tamil Nadu and Pudducherry, and a tributary of Kaveri river which splits into 5 different rivers when it enters into Thanjavur district from Trichy.It separates from river Kaveri in the place near Pullambadi where the Kaveri is stopped by Lower Anaicut and from Thiruvaiyaru. When the Chola Empire began to decline in the 13th century, the Pandyas from the south invaded and captured Thanjavur twice, first during 1218–19 and then during 1230. Ideal River View Resort in Tanjore - Best Price (Room Rates) Guarantee Book online INR 330 OFF! [104], Thanjavur has a total of four Universities, namely the Periyar Maniammai Institute of Science & Technology, PRIST University, SASTRA University and Tamil University. The British referred to the city as Tanjore in their records. The major occupation of the inhabitants of the city is tourism and service-oriented industry, while the traditional occupation is agriculture. [55], Thanjavur is an important centre of silk weaving in Tamil Nadu. Apart from telecom, BSNL also provides broadband internet service. [55], All major nationalised banks such as State Bank of India, Indian Bank, Central Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, Indian Overseas Bank and private banks like ICICI Bank, City Union Bank have their branches in Thanjavur. During the 2000–01 period, a total of 31 million litres of water was supplied every day for households in the city. It was the capital of earlier Chola Kingdom. While Hindus form the majority, the city also has a substantial population of Muslims and Christians. [91], Law and order in the city is maintained by the Thanjavur subdivision of the Tamil Nadu Police, headed by a Deputy Superintendent (DSP). The nearest airport is Tiruchirapalli International Airport, located 59.6 km (37.0 mi) away from the city. [85], Thanjavur comes under the Thanjavur State Assembly Constituency and it elects a member to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly once every five years. Thanjavur is also known as the ‘Rice Bowl of India’ and is also considered to be one of the leading cultural head-quarters of the region. [81], On 10 April 2013, the state government announced in the Assembly that Thanjavur municipality will be upgraded to a Municipal corporation. Thanjavur is the cultural and political center of the Thanjavur Marathi people. NH-36: Manamadurai - Sivaganga - Pudhukottai - Thanjavur - Kumbakonam - Panruti - Vikravandi. The nearest seaport is Karaikal, which is 94 km (58 mi) away from Thanjavur. [41] Raja Rajan Manimandapam is one of the tourist attractions in Thanjavur, built during the Thanjavur Tamil Conference in 1991. 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