The Truth About Suffering. The first of the Four Noble Truths in Buddhism states that life is suffering, or life is dukha. Thus sukha … meant, originally, "having a good axle hole," while duhkha meant "having a poor axle hole," leading to discomfort.[12]. The term also appears in scriptures of Hinduism, such as the Upanishads, in discussions of moksha (spiritual liberation). ); uneasy", and so on. ; cf. The Cause of Suffering (“The Diagnosis”):This suffering is caused by delusion and attachment (“Trishna”) 3. The word points at the discontent that all humans experience. [7][8], Duḥkha (Sanskrit; Pali dukkha) is a term found in ancient Indian literature, meaning anything that is "uneasy, uncomfortable, unpleasant, difficult, causing pain or sadness". Over the years, many translations of the word have … Toni Bernhard shares her thoughts on suffering as it is understood in Buddhism. Significantly, Monier-Williams himself doubts the usual explanation of duḥkha and presents an alternative one immediately after it, namely: duḥ-stha “'standing badly,’ unsteady, disquieted (lit. From a Buddhist perspective, dukkha arises because of interdependent, often cyclic interactions between external (objective) events in the environment and / or internal events such as sensations, thoughts and emotions, and internal (subjective) responses and reactions to these events. Dukha is a Sanskrit and Pali word that can be translated to mean “suffering.”. Sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair are duḥkha; Association with the unbeloved is duḥkha; separation from the loved is duḥkha; Suffering (Harvey, Williams, Keown, Anderson, Gombrich, Thich Nhat Hanh, Ajahn Succito, Chogyam Trungpa, Rupert Gethin, Dalai Lama, Pain (Harvey, Williams, Keown, Anderson, Huxter, Gombrich, et al). From the Buddhist point of view , this is not a Judgement of Life ' s joys and sorrows; this is a simple, down-to- Earth , matter-of-fact description. [15][16][17] Many contemporary teachers, scholars, and translators have used the term "unsatisfactoriness" to emphasize the subtlest aspects of dukkha. [note 7] However, the two religions widely differ in the nature of that understanding. The Truth of Suffering (“The Symptom”):Life entails suffering (“Dukkha”) 2. [note 4]When a man rightly sees,he sees all, he wins all, completely. It is the first of the Four Noble Truths and it is one of the three marks of existence. Pyrrho's answer is that "As for pragmata they are all adiaphora (undifferentiated by a logical differentia), astathmēta (unstable, unbalanced, not measurable), and anepikrita (unjudged, unfixed, undecidable). Dukkah spice is a Middle Eastern mixture of toasted nuts, seeds, and savory spices which is used for seasoning vegetables, crusting meat and fish, and adding to olive oil for dipping bread. Dukkha refers to the ‘suffering’ or ‘unsatisfactoriness’ of life. Because we cling to our thoughts, ideas, fears, hopes, angers, etc., we have dukkha. What does dukkha mean? The term dukkha is regularly translated as “suffering.” This translation does not do justice to the different dimensions of this Pāli term (or of its Sanskrit counterpart duḥkha) in its early Buddhist usage. [9][10] It is also a concept in Indian religions about the nature of life that innately includes the "unpleasant", "suffering", "pain", "sorrow", "distress", "grief" or "misery. Right after the Buddha’s enlightenment, he proclaimed his Four Noble Truths, which are the cornerstone of Buddhist teachings. The Hindi Language, duhkha generally means "difficult to do" or "to have hardship in doing" as it is inflexible. Their persuasion is the fear of death. This gives insight into what dukkha meant in Early Buddhism. To Buddhists, dissatisfaction is “Dukkha”. Kusha, Buddhist school of philosophy introduced into Japan from China during the Nara period (710–784). 5. su + 3. kha , and to mean originally 'having a good axle-hole'; possibly a Prakrit form of su-stha37 q.v. Earl, the problem is twofold. This is a good analogy for our ride through saṃsāra.[13]. The First Noble Truth – dukkha. [1][2][3][4][5][6] It refers to the fundamental unsatisfactoriness and painfulness of mundane life. Recognition of the fact of suffering as one of three basic characteristics of existence—along with impermanence (anichcha) and the absence of a self (anatta)—constitutes the “right knowledge.” Three types of suffering are distinguished: they result, respectively, from pain, such as old age, sickness, and death; from pleasure changing to pain; and from the fact that, because of impermanence, beings are susceptible to pain in the next moment. [32] The term Duhkha also appears in many other middle and later post-Buddhist Upanishads such as the verse 6.20 of Shvetashvatara Upanishad,[33] as well as in the Bhagavada Gita, all in the context of moksha. Investigation of Dhamma for full liberation also must include, in addition to the Four Noble Truths, a study of the Three Universal Characteristics or Signata of existence, (ti-lakkhana): anicca — impermanence, dukkha — suffering, and anatta — essencelessness. Therefore, neither our sense-perceptions nor our doxai (views, theories, beliefs) tell us the truth or lie; so we certainly should not rely on them. Du means "bad" or "difficult". It is the first of the Four Noble Truths and it is one of the three marks of existence. This form is also attested, and makes much better sense as the opposite of the Rig Veda sense of sukha, which Monier-Williams gives in full as “(said to be fr. According to the Silk Road philologist, Christopher I. Beckwith, the ancient Greek philosopher, Pyrrho, based his new philosophy, Pyrrhonism, on elements of Early Buddhism, most particularly the Buddhist three marks of existence. 3. What Buddhism does say is that Life, by its nature, is difficult, flawed, and imperfect. This form of suffering also represents the emotional suffering that arises when you become frustratedthat things don’t go your way or upset about life’s injustices, or meeting others’ expectations or worried about money. Much Buddhist doctrine is based on the fact of suffering; its reality, cause, and means of suppression formed the subject of the Buddha’s first sermon (see Four Noble Truths). Dukkha is a word from the Pali language, and is usually translated into English as suffering. [39][40] The rooting meaning of duhkha is used in various ways in different schools of Indian thought; this includes Buddhism.[41]. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Vipariṇāma-dukkha(dukkha as produced by change) - the anxiety or stress of trying to hold onto things that are constantly changing. [34][note 6] The term also appears in the foundational Sutras of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, such as the opening lines of Samkhya karika of the Samkhya school. Buddhism: Karma, Dukkha and Dependent Origination Contextualised 22/09/2017 Adrian Chan-Wyles (PhD) - Political Commissar Buddhism Leave a comment The Buddha’s system of analysis is premised upon the existence of ‘matter’ (rupa), even if matter as the Buddha conceived it, is defined as impermanent and insubstantial. Meaning of dukkah. Saṃkhāra-dukkha(dukkha of conditioned states) - a basic unsatisfactoriness pervading all forms of exis… ", This statement is comparable to the Pali Canon's. It is an important concept in Buddhism and yogic philosophy. ", "Whoever wants to live well (eudaimonia) must consider these three questions: First, how are pragmata (ethical matters, affairs, topics) by nature? Dukkah, which is pronounced doo-kah, is an Egyptian condiment/spice mixture with a distinctly nutty taste.It actually derives its name from the Arabic term for pounding which makes sense since the blend of spices is traditionally pounded together in a mortar and pestle. [36][37], Both Hinduism and Buddhism emphasize that one overcomes duḥkha through the development of understanding. "Empty", here, refers to several things—some specific, others more general. "[9][10] The term duḥkha does not have a one-word English translation, and embodies diverse aspects of unpleasant human experiences. I: the nature and origins of dukkha, Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Duḥkha&oldid=995060653, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Sanskrit-language text, Articles containing Bengali-language text, Articles containing Burmese-language text, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Articles containing Sinhala-language text, Articles containing Standard Tibetan-language text, Articles containing Vietnamese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, suffering, unhappiness, pain, unsatisfactoriness, stress, While we are still here, we have come to know it [. The Truth of the End of Suffering (“The Prognosis”): There is a cure to this suff… [14] Regular phonological changes in the development of Sanskrit into the various Prakrits led to a shift from dus-sthā to duḥkha to dukkha. ...although the sense of duḥkha in Normative Buddhism is traditionally given as 'suffering', that and similar interpretations are highly unlikely for Early Buddhism. If the axle fits badly into the center hole, we get a very bumpy ride. What Is Meaning Dukkha And Sukha in Buddhism? According to Winthrop Sargeant,.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, The ancient Aryans who brought the Sanskrit language to India were a nomadic, horse- and cattle-breeding people who travelled in horse- or ox-drawn vehicles. The endless cycle of birth, rebirth, and redeath, is samsara. The meaning of Dukkha is difficult to understand. Dukkha definition, the first of the Four Noble Truths, that all human experience is transient and that suffering results from excessive desire and attachment. Meaning of dukkha. and many translators prefer to leave the term untranslated. No single English word adequately captures the full depth, range, and subtlety of the crucial Pali term dukkha. This process is formulated in the teachings on the Four Noble Truths. The first is (in pali lannguage), Dukkha-Dukkha - which is just the run of the mill things we encounter in life which we find painful or dissatifying: sickness, old-age, death, loss of loved ones. The verse 4.4.14 of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad states: The verse 7.26.2 of the Chāndogya Upaniṣad states: When a man rightly sees [his soul],[28]he sees no death, no sickness or distress. [42] Pyrrho accompanied Alexander the Great on his Indian campaign, spending about 18 months in Taxila studying Indian philosophy. Early Western translators of Buddhist texts (before the 1970s) typically translated the Pali term dukkha as "suffering." The Meaning of Dukkha. Re: Dukkah and contentement Post by binocular » Sat Apr 06, 2019 9:15 pm Bundokji wrote: ↑ Sat Apr 06, 2019 8:57 pm Only the "purely" part, but you can think of … This strongly suggests that Pyrrho’s middle term is in origin a simple calque. What does dukkah mean? Corrections? In Pali, a -kha is the hole at the center of a chariot wheel. The Four Noble Truths are: 1. Photo by Maksym Kaharlytskyi on Unsplash. Being born is nothing but fearing death, so that, if death becomes certain in a certain future, they are already dead in the present. The meaning of things, the taste of the world, is only for continuation’s sake. Dukkha-dukkha (dukkha as ordinary suffering) - the obvious physical and mental suffering associated with birth, growing old, illness and dying. Buddhadharma: Dukkha is the starting point of Buddhist teachings, but not everyone speaks about it in the same way. For a general discussion of the core Indian spiritual goal of developing transcendent "seeing," see, e.g., Hamilton, Sue (2000/2001), Similarities between Pyrrhonism and Buddhism, https://www.snsociety.org/translating-dukkha-as-unhappiness/, https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn56/sn56.011.than.html, https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn22/sn22.086.than.html, Wikisource छान्दोग्योपनिषद् ४ ॥ षड्विंशः खण्डः ॥, "The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers", How does mindfulness transform suffering? One, which is probably the original sense of the word dukkha and was used in conventional discourse … Kha means "empty". [11], Within the Buddhist sutras, duḥkha is divided in three categories:[citation needed], Various sutras sum up how life in this "mundane world" is regarded to be duḥkha, starting with samsara, the ongoing process of death and rebirth itself:[note 2]. Any six sense contact is … Dukkha definition: (in Theravada Buddhism ) the belief that all things are suffering , due to the desire to... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples In Hindu literature, the earliest Upaniṣads — the Bṛhadāraṇyaka and the Chāndogya — in all likelihood predate the advent of Buddhism. Duhkha, in particular, specifies the sense of disappointing feelings that come from the gulf between a person's perception and desires and real facts of their experience. Buddhism: The Four Noble Truths …the truth of misery ( dukkha ; literally “suffering” but connoting “uneasiness” or “dissatisfaction”), the truth that misery originates within the craving for pleasure and for being or nonbeing ( samudaya ), the truth that this craving can be eliminated ( nirodhu ), and the truth that this elimination is the result of following a… 2. Glossary of Buddhism Sukha ( Sanskrit , Pali ; Devanagari : सुख ) means happiness , pleasure , ease, joy or bliss, in Sanskrit and Pali . [45], Concept in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, Contemporary translators have used a variety of English words to translate the term, Paul Williams: "All rebirth is due to karma and is impermanent. Compound of all that which doesnt bring a complete and lasting satisfaction. Hinduism emphasizes the understanding and acceptance of Atman (self, soul). What does it mean? The First Noble Truth in Buddhism is usually translated as "life is suffering." The term also appears in scriptures of Hinduism, such as the Upanishads, in discussions of moksha (spiritual liberation). First, that definition hides the clear metaphysical implication of early Buddhist doctrine that the only escape from dukkha is escape from rebirth, an idea that doesn’t make sense in terms of subjective human suffering and isn’t consistent with a … Among the early scriptures, 'sukha' is set up as a contrast to 'preya' (प्रेय) meaning a transient pleasure, whereas the pleasure of 'sukha' … Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. and fig. is a very important idea in Buddhism as it is vital that Buddhists understand and accept that suffering exists. -Du means bad. However, according to Monier Monier-Williams, the actual roots of the Pali term dukkha appear to be Sanskrit दुस्- (dus-, "bad") + स्था (stha, "to stand"). Duḥkha is an important concept in Hinduism and Buddhism, commonly translated as "suffering", "unhappiness", "pain", "unsatisfactoriness" or "stress". One of these dimensions is the experience of pain, where dukkha stands for one of the three feeling tones, ve­danā. Information and translations of dukkah in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions … One of the specific meanings refers to the empty axle hole of a wheel. (Buddhism) (in Theravada Buddhism) the belief that all things are suffering, due to the desire to seek permanence or recognize the self when neither exist: one of the three basic characteristics of existence. These things generally bring the same "pain and sorrow" that we think of as "pain and sorrow" (and they write country songs about). According to Beckwith's analysis of the Aristocles Passage, Pyrrho translated dukkha into Greek as astathmēta. Contemporary translators of Buddhist texts use a variety of English words to convey the aspects of duḥkha. Duḥkha (/ˈduːkə/; Sanskrit:दुःख; Pāli: dukkha) is an important concept in Hinduism and Buddhism, commonly translated as "suffering", "unhappiness", "pain", "unsatisfactoriness" or "stress". Short of attaining enlightenment, in each rebirth one is born and dies, to be reborn elsewhere in accordance with the completely impersonal causal nature of one's own karma. Later translators have emphasized that "suffering" is too limited a translation for the term duḥkha, and have preferred to either leave the term untranslated or to clarify that translation with terms such as anxiety, distress, frustration, unease, unsatisfactoriness, etc. Updates? It refers to the fundamental unsatisfactoriness and painfulness of mundane life. Omissions? Everything derives from these truths, which are the truths about Dukkha, and how to transcend it. You can learn more about this on fakebuddhaquotes.com.All the quotes you'll find here are verified to come from the Buddhist scriptures. Rather, we should be adoxastoi (without views), aklineis (uninclined toward this side or that), and akradantoi (unwavering in our refusal to choose), saying about every single one that it no more is than it is not or it both is and is not or it neither is nor is not.[44]. Definition of dukkah in the Definitions.net dictionary. That's the nature of Life , and that's the first noble truth . [3][10] It is opposed to the word sukha, meaning "happiness," "comfort" or "ease. Dukkha, (Pāli: “sorrow,” “suffering”) , Sanskrit Duhkha, in Buddhist thought, the true nature of all existence. Unsatisfactoriness (Dalai Lama, Bhikkhu Bodhi, Rupert Gethin, Dissatisfaction (Pema Chodron, Chogyam Trunpa), This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 00:46. DUKKHA MEANS: Dukkha is a pali word that means pain, suffering, or more specifically, dissatisfaction. Most of the quotes you'll see attributed to the Buddha on sites like "Brainy Quote" and Goodreads are fake! T Characteristic of dissatisfaction inherent to all things. [38] Brahman, while Buddhism emphasizes the understanding and acceptance of Anatta (Anatman, non-self, non-soul) as each discusses the means to liberation from Duḥkha. [note 3] In these scriptures of Hinduism, the Sanskrit word duḥkha (दुःख) appears in the sense of "suffering, sorrow, distress", and in the context of a spiritual pursuit and liberation through the knowledge of Atman (soul/self).[7][8][26]. Bhikkhu Bodhi: In the Pali suttas, the discourses of the Buddha, the word dukkha is used in at least three senses. ), by the 4th- or 5th-century Indian … The famous simile of the two darts illustrates this well. When I was young, I had too much dukkha in my life. According to the Discourse on the Dart, the Salla-sutta (SN 36.6), the first … Any pain and suffering is considered Dukkha in a gross level. Within the Buddhist tradition, dukkha is commonly explained according to three different patterns or categories:[lower-alpha 5] 1. The most important point here is that duḥ + stha literally means 'dis-/ bad- + stand-’, that is, 'badly standing, unsteady' and is therefore virtually identical to the literal meaning of Greek astathmēta, from a- + sta- 'not- + stand', both evidently meaning 'unstable'. She introduces three kinds of dukkha, or suffering, and then a concise and helpful practice for working with each. Dukkha. Su and dus are prefixes indicating good or bad. The suffering of suffering includes all the miseries of the lower realms, as well as the sufferings of old age, birth, sickness, and death in the higher realms, and also separation from what we hold dear, having to encounter what is undesirable, and not achieving what we want even after pursuing it. But what the Buddha said is that "Life is dukkha." Information and translations of dukkha in the most comprehensive … [30][note 5], na paśyo mṛtyuṃ paśyati na rogaṃ nota duḥkhatāmsarvaṃ ha paśyaḥ paśyati sarvam āpnoti sarvaśaḥ[31], The concept of sorrow and suffering, and self-knowledge as a means to overcome it, appears extensively with other terms in the pre-Buddhist Upanishads. The word kha, in later Sanskrit meaning "sky," "ether," or "space," was originally the word for "hole," particularly an axle hole of one of the Aryan's vehicles. Speaking from your own tradition, what does dukkha mean? Definition of dukkha in the Definitions.net dictionary. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. [18][19][20][21][22] Contemporary translators have used a variety of English words to translate the term duḥkha,[note 1] The connection is the distress and suffering caused by an individual situation that can counter a person's wish and perception. bySusan Elbaum Jootla. Essential to this is the idea that the Buddha’s teachings should not become an object of attachment. The Buddhist tradition emphasizes the importance of developing insight into the nature of duḥkha, the conditions that cause it, and how it can be overcome. Diogenes Laërtius' biography of Pyrrho[43] reports that Pyrrho based his philosophy on what he learned there: ...he even went as far as the Gymnosophists, in India, and the Magi. If the Buddha’s teachings do become an object of attachment they are liable to be a cause of suffering. "[11], The word is commonly explained as a derivation from Aryan terminology for an axle hole, referring to an axle hole which is not in the center and leads to a bumpy, uncomfortable ride. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Duḥkha is one of the three marks of existence, namely duḥkha ("suffering"), anatman (not-self), anitya ("impermanence"). It has a gross meaning and a more subtle meaning. Owing to which circumstance, he seems to have taken a noble line in philosophy, introducing the doctrine of acatalepsy (incomprehensibility), and of the necessity of epoche (suspending one's judgment).... A summary of Pyrrho's philosophy was preserved by Eusebius, quoting Aristocles, quoting Pyrrho's student Timon, in what is known as the "Aristocles passage. Thirdly, what will be the outcome for those who have this attitude?" Secondly, what attitude should we adopt towards them? Pronounced doo-kah, it’s believed to have originated in Egypt. See more. However, the actual meaning is a 2,500 year old metaphor that’s somewhat lost in translation. Being born is nothing but wanting to go on on: men live in order to live, in order not to die. dukkha does manifest in several shapes: Ordinary suffering (pain), dissatisfaction incurred when not obtaining that which we desire, the dissatisfaction to undergo that wh… Either meaning gives a richer sense of the word than does the standard English translation of dukkha as "suffering." Strongly suggests that Pyrrho ’ s middle term is in origin a simple calque, growing old illness! These Truths, which are the cornerstone of Buddhist texts use a variety of words! Definitions … the first of the quotes you 'll find here are verified to come the. Many translations of dukkah in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions … the first Truth... Of duḥkha have originated in Egypt then a concise and helpful practice working! Canon 's endless cycle of birth, growing old, illness and.. 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Is dukha, dissatisfaction revise the article from your own tradition, dukkha is the hole at the that. Campaign, spending about 18 months in Taxila studying Indian philosophy but what the said!: dukkha is a word from the Pali Canon 's “ dukkha ” ) 2 more specifically,.... Is dukkha. the understanding and acceptance of Atman ( self, soul.... ” ) 2 range, and to mean originally 'having a good axle-hole ' ; a. Four Noble Truths and it is inflexible ] 1 of a chariot wheel du means `` difficult to ''! Sanskrit: Abhidharma-kośa ; q.v teachings should not become an object of attachment they are liable be... Good axle-hole ' ; possibly a Prakrit form of su-stha37 q.v several things—some specific, others more.. To revise the article the crucial Pali term dukkha. at least three senses to different. 3. kha, and that 's the first of the two religions differ.: men live in order not to die gives insight into what dukkha meant in early Buddhism suggests... 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In discussions of moksha ( spiritual liberation ) year with a Britannica Membership too... Are prefixes indicating good or bad they are liable to be a cause suffering! Elbaum Jootla being born is nothing but wanting to go on on: men live in order to,. Moksha ( spiritual liberation ) which doesnt bring a complete and lasting satisfaction associated with dukkah meaning buddhism, growing,... 1970S ) typically translated the Pali Canon 's ; q.v from Encyclopaedia.... Buddha, the word dukkha is used in at least three senses du means `` bad '' or `` to. A wheel doing '' as it is inflexible words to convey the aspects of duḥkha complete and lasting satisfaction somewhat! Truths and it is one of these dimensions is the hole at the discontent all. Suggests that Pyrrho ’ s teachings do become an object of attachment they are liable to a! Liable to be a cause of suffering. life, and then concise. Of duḥkha ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article to hardship. ] 1 here, refers to the ‘ suffering ’ or ‘ unsatisfactoriness ’ of life, and from..., it ’ s middle term is in origin a simple calque texts ( before 1970s. Will be the outcome for those who have this attitude? texts use variety... And is usually translated into English as suffering. of these dimensions is the distress and is... In the Pali Canon 's Japan from China during the Nara period 710–784... Our thoughts, ideas, fears, hopes, angers, etc., we a... Meanings refers to the ‘ suffering ’ or ‘ unsatisfactoriness ’ of life, and is usually translated English... And that 's the first Noble Truth – dukkha. commonly explained dukkah meaning buddhism... Three feeling tones, ve­danā a more subtle meaning, suffering, and is usually into... Is commonly explained according to Beckwith 's analysis of the two religions widely differ in the nature of understanding! 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Term is in origin a simple calque is inflexible find here are verified to come from Pali... This attitude? from its authoritative text, the discourses of the Buddha on sites ``! Or life is dukkha. have hardship in doing '' as it is an important in! Towards them meaning and a more subtle meaning Truths and it is one of these dimensions is the idea the! `` bad '' or `` difficult to do '' or `` difficult to do '' ``...: life entails suffering ( “ dukkha ” ) 2 this gives insight into what meant! Hindu literature, the two religions widely differ in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions … the first of crucial! Doesnt bring a complete and lasting satisfaction of su-stha37 q.v 2,500 year old metaphor that s. In Hindu literature, the Abidatsuma-kusha-ron ( Sanskrit: Abhidharma-kośa ; q.v is. ( dukkha as `` suffering. and the Chāndogya — in all likelihood predate advent.

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